In an essay entitled “And of My Cuba, What?” author Guillermo Cabrera Infante describes his escape from his island homeland and the Castro regime as “kissing Circe and living to tell it.” He was born in Gibara, Cuba’s former Oriente Province in 1929 and moved with his parents to the capital city when he was twelve-years old. Cabrera Infante’s parents were founding members of Cuba’s communist party and the author himself, as a socialist, opposed the Batista regime and supported the Revolution of 1959.
The author, however, quickly becomes disillusioned with the Castro’s increasingly totalitarian regime. Cabrera Infante was head of the literary magazine Lunes de Revolución, a supplement to the Communist newspaper Revolución, which was shut down by Castro in 1961. Having fallen out of favor with the Communist government, he was sent off as a sort of minor exile to Belgium to serve as the cultural attaché in the Cuban embassy there. When his mother dies in 1965, he travels back to Cuba for the funeral and thinks he will only be there for a few weeks. But when he attempts to board the plane back to Belgium, he is pulled off his flight by the Cuban authorities who, for reasons never known to Cabrera Infante, will not let him out of the country. The author is trapped in his homeland, a rapidly decaying and depressing place, that he no longer recognizes.
In August, Archipelago Books will publish a translation of Map Drawn by a Spy which is Cabrera Infante’s autobiographical account of the frightening four months he spent in 1965 trying to escape from Cuba. I highly recommend this fascinating book which portrays his harrowing escape to Madrid and eventually to London where he spends the rest of his life. After his voluntary exile from Cuba, he becomes a staunch and frequent critic of Castro and his government. His essay “And of My Cuba, What?”, written in exile in January of 1992, and “Answers and Questions,” written in July of 1986, are both included in his collected volume of non-fiction writing entitled Mea Cuba translated into English by Kenneth Hall and published in 1994 by Farrar, Strauss & Giroux. Cabrera Infante’s essays are consumed with the nostalgia and longing that one would expect from an exile, a man that never expects to see his birthplace, his family or his friends again. I chose to write about “And of My Cuba, What?” and “Answers and Questions” because they are two of the angriest, most chilling pieces in the collection and have an important message about corruption and greed in government and leadership.
In “And of my Cuba, What?”, Cabrera Infante directs his fury towards Fidel Castro whom he blames for economically, socially and spiritually ruining Cuba and plunging it back into a primitive time. He writes:
Now, because of the deterioration of the economy, of capital and of the capital, of the whole country that has ceased to be Cuba to become the Albania of the Caribbean (a phrase with which I portrayed the whole island then), the nation has been demolished, ruined and brought finally to a fate worse than death: to take corruption in life. Havana is as destroyed physically as Beirut, in a civil war made by one man. Fidel Castro lives out his last days in his palace (read bunker) surrounded by physical and moral ruins.
Cuba’s history as well as her geography, Cabrera Infante argues, have helped to keep Castro in power for decades. “All Cuba, as Berlin once was, is surrounded by a wall” he states. As an island, Cuba’s natural wall, or barrier, is water. Not even the Americans could successfully breach this “wall” in the Bay of Pigs invasion. Cubans looked to Castro to free them from the oppression of the Batista regime, but no one expected him to stay in power, through force and violence, for decades. Cabrera Infante’s anger towards Castro is palpable throughout this essay and he uses multiple, horrifying examples of Castro’s tyrannical leadership to justify his ire. When he visits Havana in 1965, he realizes that Castro has “made life regress to infrahuman levels…” One of the most shocking revelations in this essay is the new form of racism that Cabrera Infante accuses Castro of creating. Cubans are refused entrance to hotels, restaurants, beaches, night clubs and resorts unless they are accompanied by foreigners and can pay cash with American dollars. But American dollars are also illegal and the punishment for possessing them is severe. The author calls this an “indecent apartheid.” In addition to this racism, Cabrera Infante describes the shoot-to-kill policy used against those trying to escape the island, the concentration camps created for homosexuals and the Cuban version of the Nazi Blockwarts whereby every Cuban is forced to spy on his neighbor.
“Answers and Questions” portrays the dilapidation of what was a once prosperous and beautiful Havana and the effect this has on the every day lives of Cubans. During his last visit to the island, he is horrified that he no longer recognizes his birth place:
Cuba now was not Cuba. It was another thing—the double in the mirror, its doppelganger, a living robot from which an accident by its maker had provoked a mutation, a genetic change, a switch of chromosomes. Nothing was in its place, The features were recognizable, but even in Havana the buildings showed a new leprosy.
What was most striking in this essay is the author’s description of the lack of basic supplies that we take for granted. Food, coffee, clothing and medicine are all scare in Castro’s Cuba unless one is lucky enough to have access to the stores reserved for diplomats or wealthy enough to afford items from the black market. Cabrera Infante writes one of the most thought-provoking quotes which I keep playing over in my mind: “In theory, socialism nationalize wealth. In Cuba, by a strange perversion of the practice, they had socialized poverty.”
One of the saddest stories included in Cabrera Infante’s essay is the death of his mother who suffers and passes away from a basic ear infection because she is not given appropriate and timely medical treatment. I would argue that such a socialization of poverty is not unique to Cuba. As I have read quite a bit of post-Soviet literature in the past few years, one of the themes that comes up in all of this writing about totalitarian regimes is a dearth of supplies, food, medicine and other items that are necessary to live an anxiety free and dignified life. Today, as I watched the American president call for the repeal of Obamacare without any viable plan for millions of Americans who will otherwise have no access to health services I kept thinking about Cabrera Infante’s essays. It’s sickening that The President and the other Senators who are promoting this horrible agenda have access to the best health care in the world while expecting everyone else to go into bankruptcy or die due to the absence of appropriate care. If we aren’t careful then Cabrera Infante’s nightmare might become our own reality.