If you haven’t read The Aeneid then I implore you to do yourself a favor and at least read Book 4. It is one of my favorite pieces of literature to read in Latin and in English. (I recommend the Fagles translation or the new Ferry translation.) I won’t go through all of the specific reasons for Dido’s suicide in this book because you really need to read it for yourself to understand the complexity of her situation. But she does feel hopeless, abandoned, deceived, angry. In the culmination of this heart wrenching scene, Dido climbs on to the top of the funeral pyre on which she has placed all her gifts from Aeneas, the Trojan hero who, at this very same moment, is sailing away from Carthage and from her (these translations are my own):
After she looked down at the Trojan’s robes and the all-too-familiar couch, and with her mind hesitating in tearful recollection, she laid down on that same couch and spoke her final words: “Oh gifts that were dear to me as long as the fates and the gods were allowing, accept my spirt and release me from my sorrows. I have lived and I have finished the course which Fortune had set out for me, but now my famous soul will go to the underworld. I have established a famous city, I have looked upon my city’s walls, and having avenged my husband, I exacted punishment from my hateful brother. Unlucky, oh I am too unlucky—if only those Trojans ships had never reached our shores.” When she finished her speech she pressed a kiss into the couch and said, “I will die unavenged, but let me die anyway. In this way, yes, in this way it eases my pain to approach my death. I hope that cruel Trojan drinks in this fire with his eyes as he sails away, and I hope he carries with him the omen of my death.” As she had said these things, Dido’s loved ones saw her fall onto Aeneas’s sword while standing in the midst of all his other gifts. Both the sword and her hands were sprayed with blood. A shouting reaches all the parts of the palace; the report of her death quickly spreads throughout the shattered city.
Since Dido kills herself, her soul is not allowed to be accompanied to the underworld by Mercury. Instead the goddess Juno sends Iris to release Dido’s spirit:
Therefore, dewy Iris, dragging thousands of colors against the sun and through the sky with her yellow wings, descends and stands by Dido’s head: “I, having been ordered by Juno to carry out the rituals of the dead, release you from this sword and from your body.” After Iris said this she cut a lock of Dido’s hair: at the same time all the warmth slipped from her body and her soul receded into the winds.
That last sentence is just beautiful, it gets me every time I translate it. Please do read it and let me know what you think about Dido’s story.